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Chapter 02 The Chemistry of Life Answer Key Multiple Choice Questions Many traits of organisms, such as body form and color, are controlled by specific proteins, in turn controlled by the DNA genetic sequence of nucleotides.
The genetic control of color, as in aphids, does not usually shift during the life of an organism. Researchers found that some specific aphid populations shift from an original red coloration to a green coloration. Genetics could be a factor, if some programmed shift could be identified. Environmental conditions of the living and nonliving habitat could be a factor.
Either way, the chemistry and observed changes of pigment molecules in the aphids can be studied with the scientific method.
What is the link between colored pigment molecules and other organic molecules? All of the answer choices are correct. In the case of the aphids, the pigment molecules of bacteria are genetically passed on to the DNA of infected aphids.
The DNA molecule genetic sequence regulates protein molecule function, which can change pigment structure that affects color. Pigment molecules are made up of all four of the other organic molecule groups. This one group of aphids can easily alter the pigment molecule structure by modifying its DNA nucleotide sequence and building new proteins. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms Level: 4.
Analyze Learning Outcome: Section: The initial experiment of Koga and Fugatsu, in testing for any bacterial cause of aphid color change, involved all of these except. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms Level: 3. Apply Learning Outcome: The observations and research on aphid color changes can most directly be summarized in that Koga and Fugatsu proved that the color change from red to green in aphids was ecologically favorable to survival.
Researchers noted that only a few aphids changed color to green from their original red. This is an unusual observation among any animals. What research question came out of the observations? Is the color shift of certain aphids due to genetics within a select species? Is the color shift of certain aphids due to changes in weather conditions? Is the color shift of certain aphids due to genetics or some other factor?
Do other aphids change colors as they age? Will green aphids change their color to red, or remain green as they age?
Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms Level: 2. Understand Learning Outcome: The four most abundant elements needed by the human body are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. Because these are needed in large amounts to support our cells, these are referred to as.
All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Learning Outcome: In the s, a French scientist, Antoine Lavoisier, gained new experimental information by reacting a metal and an acid. His observation of the results seemed to show that much of the metal had been lost in the chemical reaction. Upon weighing the products, the total amounts of materials had not changed during the reaction. This research resulted in the law of conservation of mass.
This law also applies to biology, because the materials we are made of are aren't truly lost through biochemical reactions. Water has unique properties which include its strength as a solvent; its three environmental stages of solid, liquid, and gas; and its temperature regulation. These properties are due to polar covalent bonds between oxygen and hydrogen.
The polar covalent bonds are a result of there being a greater number of electrons in oxygen outermost shell than in hydrogen. COM oxygen being more electronegative and therefore attracting more electrons than hydrogen. The correct functions of your lungs contribute to the normal pH level of between 7.
If your lungs do not exchange and remove carbon dioxide from your blood, the blood pH will change. Apply Figure: Our normal blood pH should be in a fairly narrow range. Imagine you sit down to eat a large meal with cola, tomato-based sauce, and a salad with many citrus fruit slices. Identify the one statement that does not apply as one of the likely outcomes of your meal.
Your blood and body fluids will likely become more basic, with a higher pH than the normal range. Your body will produce buffer molecules to help neutralize acids you ate, so your blood pH doesn't change much. Your blood and body fluids will likely become more acidic, with a lower pH than the normal range.
Based on the proportions of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, it can be determined that the glucose molecule is a n. Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms Level: 1. Remember Figure: Starchy foods in our diets, such as rice and potatoes, consist of many glucose molecules covalently bonded together to form A.
Understand Figure: These glucose and fructose molecules will bond to form a monosaccharide with the removal of water. Read section 2. Multiple Choice Questions The diagram shows the monomers, glucose and fructose, before occurs, which builds a polymer via the removal of water. Remember Learning Outcome: Given this information from one element in the periodic table of elements, the number of neutrons and protons is.
The first energy shell of an atom has one orbital. Therefore, it can contain a maximum of A. In an oxygen element, each oxygen atom contains eight electrons in its valence shell. The atoms will be A. Carbon and hydrogen make up many biologically important molecules.
Carbon has an electronegativity of 2. Based on the electronegativity difference between the atoms, the carbon and hydrogens shown here have just formed.
Analyze Figure: Which statement summarizes the distinction between nonpolar and polar covalent bonds? The difference in electronegativity of the atoms in a nonpolar covalent bond is very large. The electrons are more evenly and symmetrically distributed in orbit among atoms in a nonpolar covalent bond. The electrons are more evenly and symmetrically distributed in orbit among atoms in a polar covalent bond.
Polar covalent bonds are formed when the atoms gain or lose electrons to bond and become oppositely charged ions. Referring to the ionic bond formation between sodium and chlorine, which of the following is not a true statement? Na is the chemical symbol for sodium. Sodium donates an electron. Chlorine donates an electron.
Sodium becomes positively charged. The bond that is formed is stronger than a hydrogen bond. Water molecules exhibit cohesive and adhesive properties. What is the chemical bond characteristic that contributes to these and other numerous important properties of water molecules?
The covalent bond strengths of water molecules change with pH, temperature, or solute conditions present. The covalent bonds that form water molecules transform to ionic bonds in presence of other molecules, temperature changes, or pH.
Hydrogen bonds form between water molecules, not requiring gain, loss, or sharing of electrons. Bonds that form water are of the nonpolar covalent form. Ionic bonds between water molecules create increased surface tension. The property of water demonstrated by a water strider, as it remains on top of the water, is that water molecules are held together by ionic bonds. FALSE Water's partial charges allow it to be cohesive, so that the surface tension among molecules can support this light insect.
A for more information. You can painlessly wade into a pool, but doing a belly flop off of the high diving board hurts because of A. If a molecule is added to a glass of water, and is easily dissolved by the water, the added molecule is described as hydrophilic.
COM TRUE In understanding water's function as a solvent, hydrophilic molecules are paired with polar molecules that can be dissolved easily by the polar water molecule. B for more information. You collect and measure samples of ice and surrounding ice water from a stream in the winter. You find that you collected the same number of water molecules in each form. The volume of the ice samples are larger than the ice water samples.