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This guide presents a collection of common issues and useful tips for Linux system administration. These tips cover some of the basic steps and issues encountered during the beginning of system configuration. Additionally, you may find our Introduction to Linux Concepts guide useful. Please follow our instructions for setting your hostname. You can use the following commands to make sure it is set properly:. The first command should show your short hostname, and the second should show your fully qualified domain name FQDN.
When setting the time zone of your server, it may be best to use the time zone of the majority of your users. By default, Linodes are set to UTC. Many operating systems provide built-in, interactive methods for changing time zones:. Remember it, write it down or copy it as a mouse selection. Then press q to exit the list. See the examples below for possibilities:.
This allows you to specify hostnames for an IP address in one place on the local machine, and then have multiple applications connect to external resources via their hostnames. Here is an example file:. You can specify a number of hostnames on each line separated by spaces.
Every line must begin with one and only one IP address. In the above example, replace In this example, all requests for the example. The second entry tells the system to look to If you suspect connectivity issues, adding the output from the relevant commands to your support ticket can help our staff diagnose your issue.
This is particularly helpful in cases where networking issues are intermittent. The ping command tests the connection between the local machine and a remote address or machine. These commands send a small amount of data an ICMP packet to the remote host and wait for a response. Here is the sample output of four pings to google. The time field specifies in milliseconds the duration of the round trip for an individual packet.
This will resemble:. The ping command is useful as an informal diagnostic tool to measure point-to-point network latency, and as a tool to simply ensure you are able to make a connection to a remote server. The traceroute command expands on the functionality of the ping command. It provides a report on the path that the packets take to get from the local machine to the remote machine.
Each step intermediate server in the path is called a hop. Often the hostnames and IP addresses on either side of a failed jump are useful in determining who operates the machine where the routing error occurs. Adding traceroute output to Linode support tickets is sometimes useful when trying to diagnose network issues. Recording traceroute information is particularly useful if you are experiencing an intermittent issue.
The mtr command, like the traceroute tool, provides information about the route that internet traffic takes between the local system and a remote host. However, mtr provides additional information about the round trip time for the packet. In a way, you can think of mtr as a combination of traceroute and ping. To have mtr stop automatically and generate a report after ten packets, use the --report flag:. Be aware that mtr will pause for a few moments while generating output.
For more information regarding mtr consider our diagnosing network issues with mtr guide. Use the following tools to better diagnose and resolve these. If you determine that you have a problem with memory usage, refer to our guide on resolving memory usage issues.
Use the following tools and approaches to determine the specific cause of your troubles. This output takes a bit of careful reading to interpret. Out of a total megabytes of memory RAM , the system is using megabytes and has megabytes free.
In the above example, there are megabytes of memory that are actually free. This means megabytes are available to your system when you start an additional process or a running application needs more memory. This runs a vmstat every second, twenty times, giving a sample of the current state of the system. The output generated resembles the following:. The most relevant information produced by this command is the wa column, which is the final column in most implementations.
If this number is consistently and considerably higher than 0, you might consider taking measures to address your IO usage. If you want a more organized, real-time view of the current state of your system, we recommend a tool called htop. This is not installed by default on most systems. To install htop , issue one of the following commands, depending on which distribution you use:.
You can quit at any time by pressing the F10 or Q keys. There are a couple of htop behaviors that may not be initially intuitive. Take note of the following:. Web developers and editors often use the FTP protocol to transfer and manage files on a remote system.
FTP, however, is very insecure and inefficient for managing the files on a system when you have SSH access. By default, whatever access a user has to a file system at the command line, that user will also have over SFTP. Consider the implications of file permissions when configuring user access. You can also use Unix utilities including scp and rsync to securely transfer files to your Linode. On a local machine, a command to copy team-info. The command, scp , is followed by the path of the file on the local file system to be transferred.
Follow the hostname with a colon : and the path on the remote server to where the file should be uploaded. Using a more generalized example:. This command is available by default on OS X and Linux machines. You can use it to copy files to a Linode, as well as between remote servers. If you use SSH keys, you can use the scp command without entering a password for every transfer. The syntax of scp follows the form scp [source] [destination]. You can copy files from a remote host to the local machine by reversing the order of the paths in the above example.
Because Linode servers are network accessible and often have a number of distinct users, maintaining the security of files is often an important concern. We recommend you familiarize yourself with our basic security guide. Our guide on access control with user accounts and permissions may provide additional insight.
This is useful when you need to provide users and applications access to specific files and directories without reorganizing your folders. This way you can provide restricted users access to your web-accessible directories without moving your DocumentRoot into their home directories.
More generically:. This section provides a list of basic commands to manage the contents of your filesystem. This copies todo. If you want to recursively copy all of the files and subdirectories in a directory to another directory, use the -R option. This command looks like:. For more information about file system navigation and manipulation, please consider our documentation of file system navigation.
Most Linux systems use package management tools to facilitate the installation and maintenance of all software on your system. For more in-depth coverage of this topic, please reference our package management guide. While these tools provide a number of powerful features, it is easy to look past the benefits of package management. If you install software manually without package management tools, it becomes difficult to keep your system up to date and to manage dependencies.
For these reasons, we recommend installing all software through package management tools unless other means are absolutely necessary. The following tips outline a couple of basic package management tasks. Because packages are so easy to install, and often pull in a number of dependencies, it can be easy to lose track of what software is installed on your system.
The following commands provide a list of installed packages on your system. The following example presents the first few lines of the output of this command on a production Debian Lenny system. CentOS and Fedora systems provide the name of the package SysVinit , the architecture it was compiled for i , and the version of the build installed on the system 2. This command provides a total list of all packages installed on the system. Arch also allows you to filter these results to display only packages that were explicitly installed with the -Qe option or that were automatically installed as dependencies with the -Qd option.
The above command is actually a combination of the output of two commands:. Because there are often a large number of packages installed on any given system, the output of these commands can be quite large. As a result, it is often useful to use tools like grep and less to make these results more useful. For example:. Similarly, you can use less :. You can append grep "[string]" to these commands to filter package list results, or less to display the results in a pager, regardless of distribution.
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For a person new to Linux , finding Linux functional is still not very easy even after the emergence of user friendly Linux distribution like Ubuntu and Mint. Just to start with, the first thing a user should know is the basic commands in terminal.
Linux GUI runs on Shell. If Shell is not running, nothing is running. Commands in Linux is a means of interaction with Shell. For a beginners some of the basic computational task is to:. And we have described all of the above basic computational task in our First Article. This was the first article of this series. We tried to provide you with detailed description of these commands with explicit examples which was highly appreciated by our reader in terms of likes , comments and traffic.
What after these initial commands? Obviously we moved to the next part of this article where we provided commands for computational tasks like:.
This Second Article was again highly appreciated by the readers of Tecmint. The article was nicely elaborated with suitable examples and output. After providing the users with the glimpse of Commands used by a Middle Level User we thought to give our effort in a nice write-up for a list of command used by an user of System Administrator Level.
In our Third and last article of this series, we tried to cover the commands that would be required for the computational task like:. Writing this article and the list of command that needs to go with the article was a little cumbersome. We chose 20 commands with each article and hence gave a lot of thought for which command should be included and which should be excluded from the particular post.
I personally selected the commands on the basis of their usability as I use and get used to from an user point of view and an Administrator point of view. This Articles aims to concatenate all the articles of its series and provide you with all the functionality in commands you can perform in our this very series of articles.
There are too long lists of commands available in Linux. But we provided the list of 60 commands which is generally and most commonly used and a user having knowledge of these 60 commands as a whole can work in terminal very much smoothly. I will soon be coming up with another tutorial, you people will love to go through.
Till then Stay Tuned! Keep Visiting Tecmint. Like and Share and Help us to Spread. TecMint is the fastest growing and most trusted community site for any kind of Linux Articles, Guides and Books on the web. Millions of people visit TecMint! If you like what you are reading, please consider buying us a coffee or 2 as a token of appreciation.
We are thankful for your never ending support. The way you have planed your articles is very useful, as you added the screenshots for us to see exactly what is the output of each command typed. Your email address will not be published. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.
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I TecMint :. So postgresql is used by sun Microsystems, a dead company? Parted is not a Linux command is a GNU command due I am getting this error on my apache2 php7.